Before the drug was available on the Chinese mai

nland, there was little effective therapy for the disease, and patients depended mainly on treat

ment such as respiratory and nutrition supports, said Xiong Hui, Beijing Medical Association rare disease c

ommittee member and Peking University First Hospital deputy director of pediatrics.

Spinraza debuted on the Chinese mainland having been fast-tracked through the marke

t approval process for rare disease drugs, which, available overseas since July, are urgently needed in China.

The drug began the approval process in September and was issued a license in February.

Premier Li Keqiang said in February that the government will step up efforts to gua

rantee more than 20 million rare disease patients have access to required medication.

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hinese prize for quantum research announced

A total of 12 million yuan ($1.78 million) of cash will be granted to 12 international scientists for their

groundbreaking academic contributions to the fields of quantum computation and quantum com

munications, according to a press release by the newly founded Micius Quantum Foundation on Friday.

With a combined donation of 100 million yuan from Chinese entrepreneurs, the foundation based in Hefei, East China’s Anhu

i province, will give each of the six annual laureates one million yuan. The foundation, a non-profit organization, ai

ms to promote development of quantum information science and technology.

The Micius Quantum Prize’s 2018 and 2019 laureates were announ

ced at the same time, as selection of first-year nominees took longer than expected, said Luo

Yi, president of the foundation and a scientist from the University of Science and Technology of China, based in Hefei.

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Detailed information on the foundation and the laurea

Peng Yuxing, vice-governor of Southwest China’s Sichuan province, is under disciplinary and supe

rvisory investigation for suspected severe violations of disciplines and laws, an official statement said Sunday.

The investigation is being conducted by the Communist Party of China Central Co

mmission for Discipline Inspection and the National Supervisory Commission.

Peng, a Sichuan native, was born in 1962. He graduated from Sichuan University with a master’s degree in 1985 and in July 1992 r

eceived his science doctorate from Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris, specializing in polymers and materials.

He pursued a postdoctoral degree at ExxonMobil Chemical France from July 1992 to December 1993.

Peng then served in leadership positions at the Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry under the Chinese Academy of Sciences from 1997 to 2009.

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Xi said China’s moves to boost opening-up follow from

 an independent choice based on the objective need of the country’s reform and development.

This is helpful in promoting high-quality growth, meeting the people’s need

s for a better life and promoting peace, stability and development of the world, he said.

China also hopes that other countries will create a good investment environment, treat Chinese enterpris

es, students and scholars equally and create a friendly environment for their normal international exchange activities, Xi said.

Xi pledged to take stronger measures to promote international cooperation in protecting intellectual pro

perty, which he said is not only crucial to protecting the legal rights of companies but also to promoting high-quality growth.

China will enhance policy coordination with the world’s major economic entities and j

ointly promote the robust, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth of the global economy, he said

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Xi stressed the importance of fulfilling bilateral and

 multilateral trade agreements, saying that Chinese people value a promise as much as tons of gold.

China pays close attention to building a law-based government, abolishing improper r

ules, subsidies and activities that undermine fair competition and treating all enterprises equally, Xi said.

The president highlighted building infrastructure of high quality, sustain

ability, risk resilience, reasonable pricing, inclusiveness and accessibility under the Belt and Road Initiative.

Infrastructure is a bottleneck in the development of many nations

, Xi said, and building infrastructure can help countries give full play to their ad

vantages in resources and better integrate into the global supply, industry and value chains.

Xi called on countries to uphold multilateralism, promote green devel

opment and fight corruption with zero tolerance in the process of building the Belt and Road.

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China looks to strike a balance between meeting finan

ancing needs, sustainable development and debt sustainability, according to Finance Minister Liu Kun.

“We will build a high-standard and high-quality financing system to s

upport long-term and sustainable BRI investment while preventing debt risks,” Liu said.

He suggested promoting financing cooperation for projects in

third-party countries, equity investment and attracting more private funding.

Enhancing debt and risk management is a key consideration for deepening BRI financi

ng cooperation, said Yi Gang, governor of the People’s Bank of China, the central bank.

“The debt issue in developing countries should be treated objective

ly. If debt growth is accompanied by infrastructure improvement, enhancement of people’s liveliho

ods and productivity and poverty reduction, it will be beneficial for the sustainability of long-term debt,” Yi said.

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Yi pledged to use more market-based commercial fund

 He also said improving transparency for projects’ financing is needed, especially for green

financing, and using local currencies in BRI investments to curb exchange rate risks. “The opening of local curr

ency-denominated bond markets will effectively attract long-term funds and reduce risks of currency mismatches,” he said.

Christine Lagarde, managing director of the International Monetary Fu

nd, said at the forum that China’s increased focus on the long-term success of BRI projects and the

BRI debt sustainability framework “are very welcome steps in the right direction”.

The further opening-up of China’s financial sector, such as the b

ond market, will enable diversification and foster renminbi internationalization, she said.

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President calls on think tanks to boost teamwork, Belt, Roa

President Xi Jinping called on Wednesday for exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and foreign think

tanks for more high-quality research results to push Belt and Road construction to a higher level.

Xi made the remark in a congratulatory letter to the i

naugural meeting of the Belt and Road Studies Network held in Beijing on Wednesday.

The launch of the think tank network took place ahead of the Second Belt and Road Fo

rum for International Cooperation being held from Thursday to Saturday in the capital.

Xi said in the letter that the development of history, the prosper

ity of civilizations and the progress of mankind are closely connected with the guidance of advanced thought.

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The Belt and Road Initiative, which originated in C

 China but belongs to the world, has become an open and inclusive platform for international cooperation and a well-recog

nized global public good thanks to the concerted efforts of the parties involved, Xi said.

Calling think tanks significant forces for Belt and Road constructi

on, the president said developing think tank exchanges and cooperation helps deepen mu

tual trust, unite consensus and promote the BRI to achieve high-level development.

He expressed the hope that the think tank network would develop in-depth academic exchanges to promote solid coope

ration under the BRI and contribute to the building of a community with a shared future for mankind.

Also on Wednesday, a ceremony to mark the release of the English and French editions

of a compilation of remarks by Xi on the Belt and Road was held in Beijing by the State Council Information Office.

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The origins of modern surveillance states can be trace

 back to the US government’ s military occupation of the Philippines in the 1890s. Christ

opher J. Coyne, a professor at George Mason University in the United States sai

d in the book Tyranny Comes Home that under the leadership of Ralph Van Deman, the father of US military int

elligence, the American occupier established an advanced monitoring agency at the time to suppress rebels and dissidents.

In May 1917, Vanderman took charge of the Military Intelligence Section (

MIS), a similar surveillance facility in the United States, and which would eventually evo

lve into the US National Security Agency (NSA). In 1955, the United States further launched an intelligence gat

hering and analysis network consisting of five English-speaking countries: the United States, Britain, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Thi

s is the so-called “five-eye alliance.” As a result, the five countries can globally intercept and monitor telephone exc

hanges, faxes, mails and other information transmitted by satellite communications.

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